Dating psychology articles
Ueberwasser's and Fürstenberg's commitment to psychology as an independent scientific discipline clearly exceeds the emphasis that is typically found in academic discussions of empirical psychological during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century (Meier, 1757; Schmid, 1791; Herbart, 1824/1825).
Furthermore, these developments seem to parallel the well-known, later achievements of Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) with his Lectures on Human and Animal Psychology (Wundt, 1863; Ger.: “Vorlesungen über die Menschen- und Thierseele”) and his official foundation of the Leipzig laboratory in 1879 (Wontorra et al., 2004).
But were these developments groundbreaking enough to advocate for pre-dating the beginnings of scientific psychology?
In the years 1762–1780, the newly appointed minister Franz Friedrich von Fürstenberg set out to modernize the state's agriculture, public budget, police, military, jurisdiction, and education (Esser, 1842).
The Circle of Münster existed from 1779/1780 to 1806 and included a number of eminent former Jesuits. Scientific psychology in the 18th century: a historical rediscovery. For instance, both emphasize the utility of physiological processes for understanding psychology, while simultaneously arguing against physiological reductionism.Thus, physiology is mainly seen as providing methods and approaches for testing and validating psychological accounts.To our knowledge this was not the case however (Biunde, 1832) so that it would take another 100 years after the publication of Ueberwasser's “Instructions for the regular study of empirical psychology” for psychology to finally establish a foothold in the system of the sciences.
Until there is evidence to link Ueberwassers achievements to any of the developments that paved the way for modern scientific, experimental psychology, we therefore argue that the founding moment of modern scientific psychology should still be dated to the foundation of Wundt's laboratory in 1879. Geschichte der Mathematik an der Universität Münster - Teil I: 1773–1945 [History of Mathematics at the University of Münster - Part 1: 1773–1945].
In his textbook, Ueberwasser outlined the methodological foundations of scientific psychology, followed by a broad overview of relevant psychological phenomena ranging from perception and memory to motivation, emotion, and volition (Ueberwasser, 1787; see also Schwarz and Pfister, 2016, for details on Ueberwasser's psychology).