Psychological dating violence
Global data on partner violence is analyzed and presented in a World Health Organization report, Garciá-Moreno, et al.
2005; this document is easily accessible and is notable in the scope of the evaluation.
Physically abusive relationships often include aspects of emotional abuse.
The signs of emotional abuse can be difficult to identify, especially because it is non-physical.
Unhealthy, abusive, or violent relationships can have severe consequences and short- and long-term negative effect, especially on developing teens in violent relationships.
Additionally, youth who are victims of dating violence in high school are at higher risk for victimization during college.
It should be noted, however, that a great proportion of the available research has taken place in Western countries.There are also several large-scale empirical studies on the effects of IPV on women’s health and functioning; although readers should refer to the section on Mental Health for journal articles on individual studies, a review of the physical effects of IPV is nicely summarized in Campbell 2002.A broader review of the effects of IPV on child witnesses can be found in Kitzmann, et al. Finally, there are several available reviews that provide overarching data on available interventions for perpetrators (Eckhardt, et al.There is also little support for the effectiveness of programs with especially at-risk groups, such as IPV-exposed pregnant women.
For child witnesses, several intervention programs are available, but it is not yet clear from existing research which are the most advantageous or what the primary agents of change within these programs are.Perpetrators of emotional abuse use it to take away a person’s independence, confidence and self-esteem.